Standards/competencies (Knowledge and Skills Acquisition for Certification in Speech-Language Pathology – KASA) outlined by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association include:
- Standard III-B: demonstrate knowledge of basic human communication and swallowing processes including … linguistic and cultural bases.
- Standard III-C: demonstrate knowledge of the nature of speech, language, hearing and communication disorders and differences… including etiologies and characteristics (i.e., linguistic and cultural correlates).
- Standard III-D: possess knowledge of the principles and methods of prevention, assessment, and intervention for people with communication and swallowing disorders, including considerations of … linguistic and cultural correlates of the disorders.
- Engage in supervised clinical experiences that includes integrating information from clients/patients, family member, teachers, relevant others and other professionals; adapting practice to meet client needs; interpret, integrate and synthesize al information to develop diagnoses and make appropriate recommendations for interventions.
WHO-ICF (The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health [ICF] is incorporated into the scope of practice for speech-language pathologists. According to the WHO-ICF, functioning and disability interacts with health and the contextual factors that affect everyday lives. Cultural competence is related understanding and addressing contextual factors (e.g., environment, attitudes, social structures, policies, ideologies) that affect daily life of those with communication, language, and/or literacy difficulties (Threats, 2010). “Speech-language pathologists need to address contextual factors routinely, in order to provide a holistic approach to intervention for their clients.” (Howe, 2008, p. 27).
For school teachers, standards from the Michigan Curriculum Framework include:
- Standard II.5: students will be able to describe and explain the causes, consequences, and context of global issues and events
- Standard VII: 1: students will understand the effects of their actions on others (locally and globally), and how one acts as an ethical member of society.
This unit can facilitate the development of specific skills (listed below) for school teachers and speech-language pathologists working in school systems:
- Self-reflection, critical thinking and dialectical processes for identifying and analyzing one’s own theoretical positions and how those positions inform teaching practices
- Critical review of readings and teaching tools – identify underlying assumptions that guide practices; potential effects of those assumptions on educational outcomes; strategies for building more effective practices
- Increase ability to design an educational process that reflects cultural reciprocity and cultural competence
- Knowledge of how to use interpreters
Knowledge of how to modify assessment and intervention services to be more culturally and linguistically relevant.